Understanding Instructional Design

Online Threaded Discussions (Week 3)

on January 19, 2012

1. Definition of Instructional Design (ID). What does an ID do? Include an annotation if any.

Instructional Design is defined as “a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007).

Instructional Design is known as Instructional System Design, it is the process of analysis needs for learning, to develop and deliver the instruction, to cater to their needs. Such as translating instruction and general principles of learning into plans for instructional materials and learning. To plan and produce effective instructional materials that is more elaborate and more detailed.

Instructional Design is based on theoretical and practical research(cognition, educational psychology, and problem solving) through instructional resources, activities, trial and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.

An Instructional Designer (ID) will identify the objective and target audience, to develop better learning system to meet the needs of the learners and the desired learning outcomes. They can  conduct assessments to examine the results and make amendments to the materials.

Instructional design also provides a framework for the creative process of design, and ensures that learners’ needs are met. Analyzing the needs and goals to develop a better system would allow them to learn better. Developing an effective system that would encourage the learners to be engage and they would learn it quickly. It would include development of instructional material and activities, and would also do an evaluation by trying out the instruction and learner activities.

References: http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDC_instructionaldesigndefinitions.htm

2. Principles or elements of Instructional Design. Include an annotation if any. 


– Goals are clearly stated of what students should be able to know and do by the end of the instruction and learning. It should be stated in terms of learner’s learning

– Appropriate and related to the learners

–  Consider the amount of discipline and task cater to knowledge and skills required by the learners in order to be successful

Standards and Benchmarks

–       When setting goals, make every attempt to align with state and district standards and benchmarks.

Define Learners

–          Need to work and meet the needs of all learners while designing goals and creating student performance outcomes.

–          Recognizing learner’s level of learning will help in defining goals and learner outcomes. Consider both age and individual progressive appropriateness and consider how to distinguish the learning to cater diverse needs and interests of all learners

–           Evaluate prerequisite skills and knowledge in communication such as reading, writing and etc) that helps to determine the appropriate goals and outcomes

Create Learner Outcomes

–          Established on goals, standards and learner’s needs

–          To measures the process of learning.

–           Outcomes should be clear and consistent so that all the learners would understand

–          Identify what to evaluate on, the circumstances which learning must be demonstrated, condition and criteria for successful performance.

–          Evidence of the learner who has successfully demonstrated performance outcomes that shows the goals haven’t been attained.

Develop Instructional Strategies

–          Instructional strategies explain both teaching and learning techniques.

–          Move learners towards the learning goals and standards.

–          Strategies include pre-instructional activities, presentation of information, practice and feedback, assessments, and application of activities.

–          Based on specified goals and results and existing learning investigation, knowledge of process learning, content to be taught and features of the learners.

–          Strategies contain more than one path to achieve the same goal. Different path let students with different learning styles to achieve the specified goals

–          Plan how to distribute the content and it will be the most effective. Use a variety of teaching strategies and coach the students to improve their learning techniques.

Gather or Develop Instructional Materials

–          It is more practical to gather created resources to use with instructional strategy than to start from scratch. Such as getting information from multiple resources(traditional and electronic).

–          Having the same idea being explained in a variety of forms to meet the needs of a variety of learning styles. Converting the resources to appropriate media for better learner understanding

–          Learners could also gather resources to help them understand better.

Implement Instruction

–          To be able to apply the relevant understanding to new knowledge to create a personal meaning.

–          To give consistent feedback to learner if they have met the expectations and how they can improve their performance.

–          To encourage them to be self-directed learners.

Assess Learner Performance

–          Assessments to reflect their knowledge, application and understanding.

–          Feedback should be clear and appropriate so that they can improve on it, by modifying it to meet their needs. Have both formative and summative evaluation.

Reflective Practice

–          Having assessments to help them revise the instruction, materials and strategies and to help them to understand it better.

–          Using formative assessments can guide them in their learning environment.

References: http://marcopolo.k12.or.us/design/practices.php

3. Give 2 Models of Instructional Design. Include an annotation and a graphic if you find one. 


The ADDIE Model is a organized Instructional Design Model that contain of 5 phrases – Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation.


✔  Designer identifies audience, performance, goals, objectives, audience’s needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics.

✔ Takes into consideration of the learning environment, constraints, delivery options and timeline for project.


✔ Efficient process of indicating learning objectives.

✔ Comprehensive storyboards & prototypes, creating the look and feel, graphic design, user interface and content


✔ Applying and generating original design of content and learning resources are based on the Design phrase.


✔ Implement the plan or  the actual delivery of the instruction, as designed into action.

✔ Process for educating the learner

✔ Materials are distributed and training materials are evaluated


✔ Consists formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is always seen in each stage of ADDIE process. Summative evaluation contain tests designed for providing feedback from the users.

✔ To determine whether it has met its objectives and identify aspects of the process that should be strengthened.

ARCS Model of Motivational Design by John Keller

This process would allow you to know and identify the element of human motivation. Analyze their characteristics to determine motivational requirements, select the appropriate motivational tactics. Then applying and evaluating the appropriate tactics.

The ARCS model is a problem solving approach to designing the motivational aspects of learning environments to stimulate and sustain students’ motivation to learn. It provides a good summary of issues to be considered when designing learning materials.

ARCS Categories

There are 4 steps to sustaining and promoting motivation in learning process:





  • Perceptual Arousal
  • Inquiry arousal
  • Variability
  • Goal orientation
  • Motive matching
  • Familiarity
  • Learning requirements
  • Success opportunities
  • Personal control
  • Natural Consequences
  • Positive Consequences
  • Equity

The above table contained descriptions of the theoretical foundation for each of the categories that list the “process questions” for each subcategory.

Applying the ARCS model in Instructional Design

1. Attention: It is essential to grab the learner’s attention.

a. Perceptual Arousal: Uses surprise of uncertainly to gain interest. [ The use of sensory stimuli (include uses of sound, animation and video)

b. Inquiry Arousal: Stimulates curiosity by posing challenging questions or problems to be solved (giving difficult sums so they will keep trying)

c.Variability: Use of variety (lecture with visuals, group activity, or game) for a change of pace.

*Some ways to grab their attention: Role-play involve with material or subject, having a variety of methods to present material, using visual stimuli or sensory stimuli, and giving questions or problems for learners to solve.

2. Relevance: Establish relevance in order to increase a learner’s motivation. To do so, it is important to use concrete language and examples which are familiar to the learners.

a. Goal orientation:  The outcome of learning such as obtaining a job, reward, etc. or may imply the means of learning.

b.  Motive watching:  Involves learner’s choices about strategies of learning, such as by group interaction, competition, or individual work.

c. Familiarity: Connect to what one already believes and understands such as realistic graphics, people’s names, personal learning experiences.

*Some of the ways to do so is by explaining purpose of content, present goals for learner to select, ask learner to select own goals. Such as letting users have a choice in deciding the content, select the things they would like to see.

3. Confidence: Helping the learners to estimate their own performance, so that they can evaluate and improve on it. Learners should also believe that their success is a direct result of the amount of effort they have put forth. Therefore they will study harder and have more confidence in the subject.

a. Learning Requirements: Provide in the form of clear objectives.

b. Success Opportunities: Provide success opportunities early and often enough to establish the learner’s belief in his or her ability to achieve.

c. Personal Control: Provide personal control over the learning with choices of content, objectives and activities. This relates success to one’s choices and effort.

4. Satisfaction: Making learning rewarding for the learners as well as making it satisfying for them. We could also provide the learners with opportunities to use the acquired knowledge in real life setting, so the learner would feel that it is useful or beneficial. It is good to get feedback and reinforcement. So when they appreciate the  results, they will be motivated to learn, and satisfaction is based upon motivation(intrinsic or extrinsic).

a. Natural Consequences: Increase the use of the content, simulations, projects, real-life activity.

b. Positive Consequences: Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.

c. Equity: Assure equity of rewards so that they match achievements.

ARCS Design Process

The ARCS motivational design process is a organized problem solving method which needs knowledge of human motivation as well as progresses from learner analysis to solution design. These process include:

  • Knowing and Identifying elements of human motivation
  • Examining audience characteristics to decide motivational requirements
  • Identifying characteristics of instructional materials and processes to stimulate motivation
  • Selecting suitable motivational tactics
  • Applying and Evaluating suitable tactics

It can be tough to do all these as there are numerous elements in a course which can affect motivation. For instance, materials that you use, how a teacher portray him or herself, structure of lessons that calls for different types of actions in the beginning, middle and end as well as the overall of the course. However the above 4 categories of the ARCS Model provide assistance in each of these areas. Each category contain subcategories that are supported by specific psychological concept.




4. What is the difference between Curriculum vs. instruction? 

Commonly, Curriculum transmits the content of a program and its course structure. It is also often referred as learning content, activities and structures experienced by students. Curriculum sets out the ” when, what or why ” in learning. When being the sequence and scope while what or why being the student’s assessment.

Instruction is the ” how ” in learning and the way the curriculum should be taught. Instruction is also the creation and implementation of purposefully developed plans for the teaching of the curriculum content. After planning out the curriculum, instructions are used to carry it out. Teaching is the personal skills and professional preparation demonstrated by the “who” in the equation, the teacher. The teachers would cultivate the course delivery and evaluation approaches to make it approachable by all students.

Curriculum is a guide for learning to take place, what the learners will learn and the content to be taught. While Instruction is a more detailed plan of how the learning will be carried out or how the learners will learnt and the way those plans are implemented in order to teach the curriculum content.

References: http://www.multiage-education.com/russportfolio/curriculumtopics/curoverview.html


5. Explain the difference between theories of instructional design and theories of learning. 

Instructional design

Instructional Design Theory is the study of how to best design instruction to ensure that learning will take place. Instructional design is about designing better layout and materials to improve their learning, motivation and involvement, it is drawn from learning theory. The Designer would decides what is important for the learner to know and attempts to transfer that knowledge to the learner. 

Theories of learning

Learning theory is the study of how people learn, their responses through the concept of learning.  These theories would be useful to know the complex process of learning and also how you could go about teaching the students. These theories would play a major role in instructional design models and the educational technology field.  It will be more of human information processing, cognitive load, which is more of human factors.


[ISD figure]

From Reiser and Dick

Target Audience and Prerequisites: Students are different in terms of background of experience, attitudes, skills, needs, motivation, and knowledge. Instruction must be designed with these considerations in mind.

Identify Instructional Goals: goals are common statements of what teacher would like students to be able to do.

Identify Enabling Objectives: Enabling objectives are definite statements of what students will be able to do thus the instruction will add to reaching the goals. The objective must be measureable in some way.

Plan Instructional Activities: Activities that help to cater the needs for objectives and goals. It may contain anything ranging from reading to listening to participating in field trips.

Choose Instructional Media: Instructional Media contained lecturing, assignments, PowerPoint and Internet. The problem is to discover which assist most in meeting the objectives.

Develop Assessment Tool: It must be designed to offer students with an opportunity to demonstrate the skills, knowledge and attitudes specified in the objectives.

Implement Instruction: Provide student an opportunity to evaluate the success of the plan of instruction.

Revise Plan: Any plan should be subject to revision and the revision has to go back to the objectives.

Reference: http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/edp511/isd1.html



Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s